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Name brands in European Union countries are now protected from discounters buying their products from Third World countries directly, then importing them into the so-called “European Economic Area” to sell for cheaper than the brands can themselves. The court ruling was made by the Court of Justice of the European Union on Nov. 20. It prohibits the imports for sale, unless the importer has permission from the brand itself; according to the court statement, permission must be expressed or implied, but silence does not constitute permission. It is based on suits brought by Zino Davidoff SA against A & G Imports, and Levi Strauss & Co Ltd, and Levi Strauss (UK) Ltd against Tesco Stores, Tesco plc and Costco Wholesale UK Ltd. The cases involved cosmetics and jeans brought into the U.K. for sale by the stores and not by the manufacturer’s representative.